Having had little time to absorb the economic and social shock of the COVID-19 pandemic, the EU is confronted with yet another crisis – rising energy prices due to Russia’s war in Ukraine coupled with inflation reaching historic levels. Household burdens vary greatly across and within EU member states, requiring different policy responses. In most European countries, high energy prices impose a heavier burden on low-income households. Putting compensatory measures in place to support the most vulnerable is therefore a priority. In this Forum, contributors consider specific responses from individual EU member states and the EU as a whole to determine best practices and gauge how they may be more effectively applied.