The United Kingdom’s departure from the European Union and the COVID-19 crisis are offering a window of opportunity for a deeper fiscal union and further European integration in various policy areas including foreign affairs and defence, tax harmonisation and climate change. While this debate goes far beyond national boundaries, the voters who cast their ballots are still as national as ever. When the EU emerges from the pandemic, the political landscape in different member states is likely to become even more crucial for further steps towards European integration. In this context, the recent elections in the Netherlands, the latest government crisis in Italy and the upcoming national elections in Germany, France and Hungary might show whether that window of opportunity remains.
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