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Forum · Issue 1 · 2024
Artificial Intelligence: Potential and Challenges for Europe

Forum · Issue 6 · 2023
The Future of EU Public Finances

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Forum · Issue 5 · 2023
Up to the Task? Post-Pandemic European Social Policy

The value added of central bank digital currencies

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Online First
CBAM and Hydrogen Partnerships

Alexandra Gritz and Guntram B. Wolff argue that by aligning hydrogen partnerships with local development goals, CBAM acceptance can be improved, as industrial development could be climate-friendly, making exports into the EU easier while creating new value chains to the benefit of EU producers.


Letter from America
Strategic Climate Cooperation

Reducing methane emissions from the oil and gas sector may seem like an obscure, technical topic, but it has critical implications for climate cooperation – not just for the US and EU, but for the global community, argue Kimberly Clausing, Peter Cramton, Axel Ockenfels and Catherine Wolfram.  

International Trade
Designing EU Supply Chain Regulation

The EU Directive on Corporate Sustainable Due Diligence has sparked fierce debate about the regulation of supply chains. Gabriel Felbermayr, Klaus Friesenbichler, Markus Gerschberger, Peter Klimek and Birgit Meyer suggests options to make the directive more effective and efficient.

Europe’s Geoeconomic Strategy

The EU needs to move towards a more proactive geoeconomic strategy, which means addressing institutional weaknesses, developing a more forceful digital strategy and, last but not least, boosting European military production capacity.

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European Union
Towards a Reform of the EU Budget

The EU budget is outdated and unfit to face the current EU policy challenges, writes Marco Buti. To remedy this, the new institutional cycle should acknowledge the geopolitical threats surrounding the EU and build trust.


Bidenomics means different things to different people. It also seems to mean different things to President Biden. This lack of clear definition is part of why Biden receives little credit for his handling of the economy, writes Barry Eichengreen.  

Quote of the Month

"Trade diversion from high-risk countries to high-income countries could hinder the integration of developing countries into international markets and the economic development of poor third countries that lose access to the EU export market."

Gabriel Felbermayr, Klaus Friesenbichler, Markus Gerschberger, Peter Klimek and Birgit Meyer

Designing EU Supply Chain Regulation

Current Issue

Volume 59
Issue 1

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Figure of the Month

Market potential generative artificial intelligence until 2030

At this stage, it is very hard to seriously estimate the future market potential of GAI as it is currently unclear how quickly new use cases will be created and how soon users will be ready to adopt them in their private or professional environment. Nevertheless, as shown in the figure, the market may experience enormous growth. The expected annual growth rate of approximately 47.5% until 2030 covers both incremental revenues from GAI infrastructure as well as specialised GAI assistant software.