A service of the

Forum · Issue 5 · 2022
The Return of the Eurozone Crisis?

Forum · Issue 4 · 2022
EU Enlargement in a New Light

Forum · Issue 3 · 2022
The Ripple Effects of the War in Ukraine

The Leopard: How a Post-Fascist Party Rose to Power

Mario Draghi never had a vision for Italy to achieve sustainable and inclusive growth while relaunching innovation and productivity, write Giovanni Dosi and Andrea Roventini. Indeed, the only opposition able to capture a good deal of social discontent during this period of rising inflation and plunging real wage levels has been the post-fascist right.

Eurozone Fragility
Towards a New Euro Crisis?

Have we done enough to strengthen the eurozone so that we can now be sure it is prepared to face future crises, in particular the inflation crisis that we are confronting today? Paul De Grauwe analyses what has been done to the governance of the eurozone over the years to reduce its fragility and make it more sustainable.

Conference Announcement
De-Globalisation - A New World Order?

After decades of increasing globalisation in trade, capital and information flows, we are currently experiencing a shift due to the COVID-19 pandemic, Russia’s war in Ukraine and divisions over the conflict. Where is globalisation heading? Are we seeing the beginning of a more multipolar world order? And if so, where does the EU fit in this new scheme?

Sanctions on Russia
The Economic Effects of Potential EU Tariff Sanctions

Olim Latipov, Christian Lau, Kornel Mahlstein and Simon Schropp use a sector-specific partial-equilibrium model to quantify the impact of sanctions that mirror punitive import tariffs implemented by the US. The authors find that while EU mirror sanctions would induce large welfare losses for Russia in some sectors, they would bring significant inefficiencies for the EU in others.

Letter from America
The Most Consequential Midterms in History

The November midterm elections will be the first since Trump's 2020 loss and the proliferation of his "big lie". Trump's unsubstantiated claims of voter fraud have planted seeds of doubt among many voters that threaten, more than topics like high inflation or abortion rights, to further divide the country to the point of unraveling, writes Jiffer Bourguignon.

Euro Conditionality Hinges on Positive Convergence

Once the euro area debt crisis faded, so too did the sense of urgency to complete the banking union and deepen the capital markets union, commonly agreed necessary to foster positive convergence, writes Michala Marcussen. This is a concern as the cornerstone of conditionality, which underpins the toolkit keeping euro area spreads in check, ultimately depends on economic growth.

Quote of the Month

"With the ongoing monetary policy normalisation putting upward pressure on interest rates, anchoring market expectations regarding public debt sustainability has become an additional policy objective in high-debt countries."

Christina Checherita-Westphal, Sebastian Hauptmeier, Nadine Leiner-Killinger

The Euro Area in Between Crises? Considerations on Fiscal Policies and Rules


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Volume 57
Issue 5

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Figure of the Month

Spread of 10-year sovereign bonds over Bund, basis points

ECB purchases have permitted low interest rates, which has made large debt burdens manageable. But low interest rates have an adverse side effect. They drive away private buyers, who see low yield levels as incompatible with perceived risks. It is also possible that low interest rates discourage needed structural reforms in the euro area periphery and embolden populist politicians, who come to see de facto spread control as a safety net. This is the euro periphery debt “conundrum”. On the one hand, low interest rates are needed to keep things going. On the other hand, they make it harder to ever exit an equilibrium where the ECB is increasingly on the hook for deficit financing.